From Sasa to Stasia – Calendars
W XVIII w. political calendars began to appear, civic, economic, farm, industrial, parliamentary, "Domestic and foreign", theatrical, for "splendid ladies", and even for… lovers. Their level was different.
The calendars shared the fate of Polish culture, they were also a reflection of it. So there were "Saxon" and "Enlightenment" calendars. Of course, it is difficult to delineate any rigid dividing lines, especially in 1 mid 18th century. After all, the "Saxon" trend in culture continued in the times of the Enlightenment, the "Enlightenment" trend was ahead of the "Stanisławów era" for many years. An example of this - the most famous, breaking records of readership, published for over a hundred years in numerous editorial offices and editions - "Calendar Polish and Ruthenian", in which "annual holidays and the Heavenly Run, aspects, elections, sowing time, vaccinations, letting go blood, medication, everyday east and west "have been described and" calculated with due diligence "by various" liberal sciences and philosophies of doctors "and" mathematics professors "of the Krakow or Zamość Academy.
Title one - but publishers… at least two. The first - was the Krakow Academy. It published the "Polish and Russian Calendar" (the so-called. "academic") at Drukarnia Akademicka in Kraków - sometimes in several versions for the same year and in several editions. However, always under the same title, always in the same layout. The calendar generally included: annual forecast, calendar with detailed (everyday, weekly and monthly) a prognostic apparatus, farm and natural history articles, a table for setting the clocks, news about fairs, moralizing rhyme, bookstore advertisements etc.. This calendar has been published since 1716 do 1780 r. (but also in subsequent years - as private studies). It was edited by professors of the Krakow Academy.
The calendar enjoyed a good reputation. It featured texts with ambitions, or at least according to the state of knowledge about the world at the time.
And in the "academic" calendar there were also "various secrets", "Different curiosities", "Peculiar things", or even just "wonderful", so characteristic of the culture of the Saxon era. Ot, even such, like the "properties of stones" in the calendar of Jacob F.. Niegowiecki with 1748 r. The scholar said this professor seriously, that… jet "when put into water, it ignites, and when sprinkled with oil, it is quenched ", opal "the heart cheers up and strengthens", amethyst "expels harmful vapors from the head", sapphire 'ulcers, blood from the nose heals "etc..
The second publisher of the Polish and Ruthenian Calendar was Stanisław Duńczewski, née Łazów (1701—1767), "Doctor of liberal sciences and philosophy" and the Zamość Academy of "mathematics professor", and then the dean of the Faculty of Law. Unfortunately, his opinion was not good. He was placed next to him… pcs. Benedykt Chmielowski, author of the famous "New Athens". There is no doubt: he was the heir of a not very good intellectual tradition. But also… it perfectly suited the needs and tastes of the readers of that time. And for decades!
Initially (from 1725 r.) he published his calendar in Krakow, next (starting of 1741 until his death) in Zamość. In two versions: "Less" and "greater". His son continued his work, after a few years (w 1775) however, it suspended its activities. But the calendar still existed and was published by various publishers and printers for several decades of the 19th century.
Duńczewski's "Polish and Ruthenian calendar" was considered obscurant. And I guess he really was. Duńczewski believed in astrology, as well as in witchcraft and exorcisms, and he expressed it in his calendars. He also readily published recipes and medical recommendations of a magical nature, horoscopes with stars and planets, explanations of the various "signs" of heavenly and unclean forces, various "miscellanea" and "curiosities" about the world, people, animals, etc.. This calendar was mocked, but it was widely read. In fact, it was often the only reading of the nobility and the middle class.
We do not know, in what circulation were the calendars of that time published?. Probably even several thousand copies. (Voltaire complained in 1768 r., that in Europe it is selling 400 thousand. calendars, which "instruct us, what days should blood be drawn, and what to take for purgation ". This complaint applies to many Polish calendars.) It is known anyway, that only in the years 1750-1800, several dozen calendars appeared in Poland every year. The little ones, modest, issued anyhow, and great, bloated, colored, richly decorated. Assesses itself, that went to the least 100 thousand readers.